With millions of people engaging on social media sites, like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn and lots of others, leveraging social media marketing will jet your business to a higher level.
Social Media gives marketers a voice and a way to communicate with peers, customers, and both existing as well as potential consumers. It personalizes the brand image and helps you to spread brand’s message in a relaxed and conversational way. Recent studies shows that up to 51% of internet users are more likely to buy from a brand they follow on social platform.
Social media use, interaction and strategy have changed dramatically in recent years. Social media platforms revamp their services with more new features, brand opportunities, and consumer preferences.
Influencers have transformed how brands reach potential customers, video storytelling has enhanced engagement potential, and interactivity has shattered the wall between content creators and consumers. Social Media platforms has introduced many new features like the use of stories, shopping capabilities, chatbots and other artificial intelligence ideas to keep users active and increase engagement.
Managing a brand’s presence across various channels isn’t easy, but with the right social media tools, you can achieve great things. If you want your social media marketing to be effective, you will need to invest in the right tools, apps and services to help you to manage and optimize your posts.
Social media marketing continues to be one of the most cost-effective online marketing strategies and combining these tools with paid advertising services like Google Ads, Facebook Ads, Twitter Ads etc. will take your social media marketing to the next level.
For social media managers the only way to effectively manage social media at scale is with the use of social media management tools that can improve efficiency, and over time get better results.
There are hundreds of social media tools available to generate leads, track social campaigns, improve conversions, or create visually-appealing images to accompany written content. In this post, we rounded up the best social media management tools and best social media marketing tools you can use to boost your social media marketing campaigns.
Social media tools are organized into categories for easy. Note that even if a social media tool or service belongs to a category a lot of them do more than that.
Social Media Tools Categories
- Social Media Lead Generation Tools
- Social Media Management Tools
- Social Media Research and Insight Tools
- Social Media Automation Tools
- Social Media Content Creation Tools
- Other Social Media Tools
Social Media Lead Generation Tools
Run beautiful giveaways & contests
We couldn’t create a list like this without including our giveaway tool of choice, Woorise.
Woorise is the easiest way to create high quality giveaways, contests and competitions. Woorise helps you generate leads, grow your social followings and create a buzz around your products. It’s an ideal tool for businesses and eCommerce brands that want to increase immediate engagement and interest in their products.
Key features for Woorise’s social promotion apps include buttons for every social platform such as Facebook Like, Instagram Follow, Twitter Follow, YouTube Subscribe and share buttons to encourage social engagement, referral rewards, drag & drop form builder, pre-made layouts, conditional logic options, 1-click pick winners, export data to CSV file, analytics, fraud detection and a lot more.
You can also embed your giveaway wherever you want, from Woorise’s landing page and your Facebook page to your Website or Blog.
Landing page builder and lead generation
Leadpages is an online tool that you can use to collect email subscribers. That is the main function of LeadPages, and they provide tons of optimized templates that you can use for lead magnets, webinars, and landing pages in order to grow your email list. It does have a very well-designed drag-and-drop builder that is super easy to use.
Additionally, the platform enables you to build Facebook ads directly inside the tool and it evens features built-in payment functionality for forms. Start with a template then click anything on the landing page design, and the rest of the page will fade out a bit so you can focus on that one thing you’re editing. Each item only includes a few options in a toolbar right above or below the thing you’re editing.
Build online marketing and promotion campaigns
Another popular landing page builder, Instapage is the most advanced all in one landing page solution for optimizing post-ad-click experiences at scale. Instapage is designed for collaboration, while still being focused enough to help you build a landing page in minutes.
Instapage integrates with popular email marketing and CRM platforms like Hubspot, MailChimp, and Salesforce. The tool offers a drag-and-drop landing page as well as other handy features such as lead capture forms, heat maps, A/B Testing and multiple campaign management.
Build, convert and optimize your campaigns
Unbounce is a drag and drop landing page builder which is used by marketing teams and agencies for conversion optimization without having to rely on designers or developers.
It’s designed to empower marketers with the agility, speed and customization they need to launch and iterate campaigns for maximum conversions. A/B testing, drag-and-drop functionality, lead generation, CRM integration, a rich mobile-responsive template gallery and dynamic text replacement (for better AdWords Quality Score) are some of the features that help deliver on this promise.
Generate leads, conversions and sales
OptinMonster integrates with all major email marketing and CRM platforms, making it easy to capture, pass and manage leads. OptinMonster features include email optin popups, A/B split testing, exit-intent technology, analytics and reports and more. Forms and popups can be built using a drag-and-drop builder. Use OptinMonster if you want to grow your email list, improve your website conversions, and reduce cart abandonment.
Listing building and capturing emails
Sumo is one of the most popular tools for listing building and capturing emails on your site. The tool offers features for popups, slide-in popups, and welcome mats (a popup email opt-in that covers an entire page). The tool also has an option for a floating social share bar on your site and heat maps for figuring out where visitors are clicking on your site. Sumo can be used for free (with Sumo branding on popups and the social share bar).
7. Voila Norbert
Email Finder – Find anyone’s email address
Voila Norbert helps you find and verify business email addresses. You can search in bulk for prospects with a CSV file. The tool also integrates with a wide range of CRM software. That makes it easy to keep track of your lead generation efforts.
Find and verify professional email addresses
If you want to do a quick email search, Hunter is a useful tool. Hunter lists all the people working in a company with their name and email address found on the web. Just type in the domain, and it’ll find the email address pattern. Hunter also includes a confidence rating so you know if the email is likely to be right.
Social Media Management Tools
Social media management tool for teams and agencies
AgoraPulse is an easy social media management tool that works with popular social platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn and YouTube. AgoraPulse covers basically everything you could possibly need for social media marketing, monitoring, and management.
The tool allows you to plan posts, schedule them, perform analysis, run competitions, promotions, quizzes and effortlessly collaborate with your social media staff.
This social network management platform gives you a broad range of tools, ranging from Facebook applications, analytics, and content automation among others. AgoraPulse ensures that you are always in the know, notifying you of every comment, tweet, and messages that goes all your inboxes. Virtually, you will never miss a simple conversation, an attempt to connect, or an opportunity to expand.
AgoraPulse includes the following features and apps:
- Facebook Applications
- Facebook Analytics
- Facebook Content Automatic Moderation
- Twitter Management
- Team Functionality
- Calendar View
- Track Mentions and Comments (Facebook)
- Keyword Listening (Twitter)
- Monitor hashtags and places (Instagram)
- Powerpoint Reports
- Community management metrics
- Automatic Qualification
- Audience Categorization
- Facebook Quiz Application
- Facebook Photo Contest App
- Facebook Sweepstakes App
- Facebook Instant Win App
- Facebook Personality Test App
- Facebook Fan Vote App
- Facebook Coupon App
Social media marketing & management dashboard
Hootsuite is a social media management tool used by over 10 million professionals. It can help you schedule and analyze your social media marketing campaigns all from one place. Use Hootsuite to schedule posts in advance on a number of different social platforms and measure analytics to understand how your content is performing.
Hootsuite integrates well with over 35 social media APIs including Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram and more. You can use Hootsuite to follow the competition and see how much engagement their posts truly are. With the help of this app, you can monitor everything on a single dashboard. It also supports Google Analytics.
Despite having many features, Hootsuite is inexpensive and thus suitable for average social media marketers. Starters can enjoy the brief free trial period and then pick a plan from the affordable choices available.
Social media scheduler and management tool
Buffer makes it easy for businesses and marketing teams to schedule posts, analyze performance, and manage all their accounts in one place. Buffer started off as a scheduling tool for Twitter. Now you can share posts to all the major social media platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn and Pinterest.
Buffer tool aims to help you increase engagement, reach, clicks and ultimately traffic to your website. Using Buffer you can schedule any types of posts across any platform you want, even specifying patterns of posts, such as every day or weekdays. You can also use Buffer to follow up on your posts, evaluating which ones were most effective, and why they were effective.
12. Sprout Social
Social media management solutions
You can use Sprout Social to schedule posts, monitor competitors, track your keywords, identify influencers, discover your mentions and analyze your stats. Sprout Social is an extremely powerful tool that integrates with Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Instagram.
What makes it different to the other options on this list? It’s especially good for digital agencies due to it’s team collaboration features, next lever reporting, and multi-account abilities. It features multi-level access, allowing directorial control, and access from lower-level team members to better coordinate and delegate tasks.
Find the most shared content and key Influencers
BuzzSumo is one of the best tools to track what’s hot in your niche on social media, and which topics are dull. With BuzzSumo, you can plug in a topic or a selection of keywords and find a breakdown of some of the most popular trending posts in those categories, as well as a list of influencers who are sharing that content. Rather than guess what content within your niche gets a lot of eyeballs BuzzSumo lets you discover the most popular posts as well as the influencers who wrote them.
Social media management platform for B2B enterprises
Ocktopost is a social media management tool which is specifically designed for B2B companies. Oktopost platform that allows enterprise B2B marketing teams to manage, monitor, and measure all of their social media activities.
One feature of Octopost that makes it stand out in the B2B marketing crowd is its robust integrations with other platforms such as Salesforce, Marketo, and Act-On. Also, with Oktopost you can listen to the social conversations that are really important for the growth of your business.
It even helps you to manage large social media teams. With Social Amplification you can make use of your employees in an entirely new way, by helping them become thought leaders and brand advocates for your business.
Instagram scheduler & social media platform
Later is an easy-to-use tool to schedule and manage your Instagram posts via any device. With Later you can manage multiple accounts, schedule videos, reposting, get Instagram insights and analytics. Their comment management plan is one of the easiest to use and the most successful on Instagram.
ScheduGram lets small business and marketers plan out a marketing campaign as well as schedule a series of video, images and content for Instagram in a way that allows you to tell a story with more information. ScheduGram powerful planning and editing tools make creating an eye-catching Instagram feed easy for agencies, brands, freelancers and social media managers.
Design, preview, schedule and post stunning Instagram grid layouts with our visual planner that will grow your audience and increase your influence. ScheduGram calendar shows your entire content schedule in an instant. You can add or reorder your posts by dragging and dropping them.
Pinterest & Instagram scheduler, analytics & marketing tool
Tailwind is an analytics and scheduling app popular among Pinterest and recently to Instagram users. It make Instagrammers’ lives much easier by letting them schedule the posts within minutes. On Pinterest, you can pin to multiple boards at once, bulk upload, and schedule posts with the drag-and-drop calendar. Tailwind can also help you optimize the best times to send your pins to get the highest engagement.
Visually plan, manage, and schedule your Instagram posts
Planoly (formerly Planogr.am) helps you manage, plan, and schedule your Instagram posts from your computer and mobile phones. You can create a cohesive Instagram feed and manage multiple Instagram accounts. There’s even a simple bulk upload function where you can add your own content and plan it in a way that makes your social media feed look cohesive and appealing.
Social media management tool
Crowdfire helps you discover and schedule content, and manage all your social accounts from one place. Use Crowdfire to follow the right people, unfollow inactive accounts, engage with your fans and followers and keep an eye out on your competitors’ followers. You can also discover relevant content based on your topics of interest like articles and images and automatically share them to all your social profiles and keep your timelines buzzing.
One of the most popular strategies to drive social traffic is the “follow their followers” strategy. The number of people who will follow you back comes to about 30% of those who you decide to follow. So, by following similar accounts as yours, you can reach many targeted people who will have an interest in what you are offering.
Social Media Research and Insight Tools
Social media monitoring tool
Brand24 gives you instant access to online mentions about your brand across the web, including on social media and popular publishers. Brand24 can also help you identify and reach out to the most influential individuals within your industry. But it’s not just about your brand or product, the mentions from your niche and competitors are also displayed. This should help you know how high or low you stand against your contenders.
Twitter real-time tracking, discover and organizing tool
TweetDeck will help you to get the best out of Twitter and stay on top of mentions, likes, retweets, followers and tweet performance. It allows you to view, manage, and Tweet from all your accounts along with the ability to schedule tweets for all of them in one interface. It’s ideal for consuming and analyzing a lot of information at once. Customize your experience with Tweet scheduling, collections, search, filtering, and more.
Track social mentions
Mention is an easy-to-use media monitoring tool that lets you track social mentions, analyze competitors, find influencers and discover happy or unhappy customers. You can monitor mentions of your brand, your products or your competitors in real time. With Mention you can respond to social media comments and mentions from inside the platform, plus, you can use it to find relevant influencers for influencer marketing campaigns and analyze your competitors.
23. Google Trends
Explore what the world is searching
Google Trends is an online search tool that allows you to see how often specific keywords and phrases have been queried over a specific period of time. You can use Google Trends to find out what’s hot and what’s not and use this analysis to write more relevant content. Google Trends works by analyzing a portion of Google searches to compute how many searches have been done for the terms entered, relative to the total number of searches done on Google over the same time.
24. Google Alerts
Get notifications for predefined keywords
Google Alerts is a free notification service and monitoring tool that sends you alerts whenever a predefined keyword or phrase is mentioned somewhere on the web. Google Alerts helps you to keep track of mentions of your brand, important topics in your industry, or a key competitor. Users can set notifications to come daily, weekly, or monthly.
25. Rival IQ
Social media analytics
Rival IQ is a great tool to compare your own social media engagement rate and top-performing content versus your competitors. With automated and custom reporting, you can pick your social network and instantly get a comparison report on how you’re doing. Know exactly which posts get the best response, and compare them to other posts including your competition. With Rival IQ you can customize, schedule, and export reports that give you key metrics to drive engagement and justify your social media campaigns.
Tools for Twitter analytics
Followerwonk will help you analyze and optimize your Twitter audience, suggesting people for you to follow and ultimately helping you grow your audience. With Followerwonk, you get to truly understand your followers, and their preferred time to tweet. Use Followerwonk to understand who your audience is, when they are most likely to engage, and to find followers who overlap with similar social profiles and influencers.
URL shortener & link management
Bit.ly is a URL shortener and click reporting tool. The service is well known as a URL shortener, but it has more functionality beyond pretty links. You can track links, measure performance from your campaigns and learn which channels bring in the most traffic. You can also combine it with Google Campaign URL Builder to add campaign parameters to your URL before shorten it with Bit.ly so you can track your campaign in Google Analytics too.
Save all your social media reading
Pocket is a free service that makes it easy to discover great content that’s personalized to your interests, and save this content so you can return to it later – on any device, at any time. It helps you to save articles, videos and stories from any publication, page or app. If you find something interesting, you can save it to Pocket with a single click, get back to work and read it later. There’s no longer a reason to worry about finishing up an article before getting to work, sending the kids to school, or making that next cup of coffee.
29. Post Planner
Monitor the most viral posts across Facebook and Twitter
Post Planner helps social media marketers to manage and share content consistently, and are able to achieve predictable, measurable, and remarkable results with their social media posts, especially on Facebook and Twitter. Post Planner aims to get more engagement and reach on social media in the less amount of time.
Every interaction with a user is treated as a data point used in constantly improving the service overall. It was built for engagement and gives you access to the most viral posts on Facebook and Twitter (regardless of your niche). Plus you’ll get a ton of topic ideas that you can use for status updates.
Find and analyse top Twitter and Instagram hashtags
Hashtagify helps you to gain more advantage on Twitter and Instagram by utilizing the trending hashtags at the very moment. Use it to find how popular your hashtags are, learn about the latest trends and find the influencers and hashtags that are most popular in your niche.
Track hashtags keywords and social accounts
Socialert uses keywords and hashtags to inform you in real-time when your brand, product or competitor has been mentioned. You can track every keyword related to your brand, find influencers, customers, viral content, trending hashtags and identify the most influential and active users. Track competitior keywords, facebook pages and twitter handles to unravel their strategy.
32. Facebook Audience Insights
Audience insights to better understand your audience
Facebook Audience Insights can help you to figure out what are the interests, behaviors, and demographics of your target customers. Facebook Audience Insights gives you aggregated information about three groups of people – people connected to your Page, people in your Custom Audience and people on Facebook – so that you can create content that resonates and easily find more people similar to the ones in your current audience.
Get insights about job titles, education level, lifestyle, location, household information, purchasing behavior and much more. By better understanding who your target audience is, you can more accurately create content that they’re likely to engage with.
33. Social Mention
Real time social media search and analysis platform
Social Mention is a social media search engine that searches user-generated content such as blogs, comments, bookmarks, events, news, videos, and microblogging services. It allows you to easily track and measure what people are saying about you, your company, a new product, or any topic across the web’s social media landscape in real-time. Social Mention monitors 100+ social media properties directly including: Twitter, Facebook, FriendFeed, YouTube, Digg, Google etc.
Hashtag tracking for Twitter, Instagram and Facebook
Keyhole is a real-time hashtag tracker for Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. Use Keyhole to instantly understand how your audience feels about your brand and competitors online, to understand themes, trends and audiences to better cater to your target market’s needs. Monitor and analyze your events and campaigns, build reports and measure the impact influencers are making on your brand online.
Social listening tool for Reddit
TrackReddit can help you find marketing success on Reddit by tracking terms relevant to your business, which enables you to respond and interact accordingly. Using TrackReddit you can monitor submissions/comments with your specific word or phrase, receive text messages or email alerts to immediately notify you when trackers discover a new mention, target subreddits, export data and more.
Social Media Automation Tools
Integrate with more than 1000 services and apps
Zapier is a tool that allows you to connect apps you use every day to automate tasks and save time. You can connect more than 1,000 integrated apps together to make your own automations. With Zapier your integrations are set up via Zaps which perform your automation for you. These automations are achieved by mixing a Trigger with Actions that are available on your favorite apps. For example, you could make a Zap that would automatically save responses from Woorise to a new row on a Google Sheet for you.
Zapier integrates with some of the most popular platforms like Facebook, Gmail, Instagram, YouTube, Slack, Google Docs, Google Sheets, Quickbooks and many more. The best part is that you don’t need to be a developer to build your workflows. Everything can be done through a few simple clicks.
37. IFTTT (If This, Then That)
Helps your apps and devices work together
IFTTT is an automation tool that is simple and easy to use. Using IFTTT as a social media marketing tool, you can combine different tools together to create individual sets of instructions. For example you can syncing Instagram posts to Pinterest, sharing WordPress posts on social media, posting your tweets to Facebook, sharing your videos, send a tweet every time you make a new Instagram post and many many more.
IFTTT automation tool has a wide range of features, tools and “recipes” also known as applications, channels or applets. There are over 4000 applets that IFTTT connects to. Some are weird and some are cool but all in all, you can save a lot of time with this tool.
Social media auto posting & scheduling tool
Dlvr.it helps you to automatically schedule post blogs, photos, RSS, news and videos to Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+ and more. It is a simple to use and beautifully designed app that will save you a lot of time. Using Dlvr.it you can also automatically recycle social media posts, include relevant high-performance hashtags in every post and reshare your top WordPress blog posts on Twitter, Facebook and beyond.
Social Media Content Creation Tools
Create amazing graphic design
Canva is one of the favorite tools for creating stunning images, gorgeous infographics, cover images and thumbnails for social media. It allows you to use free templates and pre-sized images specifically designed for the most popular social media sites. It’s a drag-and-drop image creator, pre-packed with a selection of attractive, ready to use templates.
Visual marketing is highly effective on platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Pinterest and using quality images that are sized perfectly help to deliver your message and connect with your audience more effectively. You don’t have to have any photo editing skills, as their drag and drop tool allows anyone to create amazing images.
40. Adobe Spark
Create impactful graphics, web pages and video stories
Adobe Spark enables you to tell stories and share ideas quickly and beautifully.
Spark lets you create three types of content:
- Pages: Create a story using text, images, and video. When you’re done it will present your story as a responsive web page that can be viewed in any web browser.
- Posts: Create images optimized for social media; you provide images and text and it will help with the design. Adobe Spark even help you create the right shape and size image for each social media platform.
- Videos: Create videos. Add videos from your computer or iOS camera roll, overlay text, add your voice and background music, and Adobe Spark help turn your story into an amazing video to share with the world.
Venngage helps you to tell your stories and present your data with infographics. Infographics make data and processes accessible and memorable. Choose from a 100+ infographic templates on Venngage and follow the steps to create your own infographics or presentation slides. Whether you are creating graphics for social, SlideShare, or a presentation, Venngage is super versatile and intuitive.
Generate cool text, words & quotes on your photos
WordSwag is a mobile application that turns your ideas, quotes, and content into attractive graphics that can be shared on Facebook, Instagram, and anywhere. You can create beautifully custom text layouts that would normally take minutes – or even hours – with just a tap. Create high quality and visually appealing graphic that will make your followers think you have a graphic designer on call.
Beautiful free images & pictures
Unsplash is a website where you can find beautiful professional images and photos that you can download for free and use on your social media posts or campaigns. All photos published on Unsplash can be used for free. You can use them for commercial and noncommercial purposes. You do not need to ask permission from or provide credit to the photographer or Unsplash.
Free vectors, icons and photos
Freepik offers users, high quality graphic designs: exclusive illustrations and graphic resources carefully selected in order to provide users with great content that can be used in both personal and commercial project. Note that if you don’t have a Premium account, you need to credit the author when using their vector and photos whether they be for personal or commercial use.
GIFs & animated stickers
Giphy is an online database and search engine that allows users to search for and share animated GIFs. You can download the latest GIF for your social media marketing campaign or to use it on your social media posts.
With Giphy you can also create your GIF as the way you want either by using videos or by combining images together. For this category, to create GIfs from videos, Giphy has Giphy maker tool to use that will cost nothing. Creating a GIF using this tool is extremely easy as all you need to drag your video file or paste your URl and you are all set to go. Once you did upload your video on GIPHY maker, It’s “easy to use” UI will let you edit your GIF as per the way you want it to be and when you are done with your editing you can save it and share it across multiple platforms.
Biteable is a web-based tool that allows you to create beautiful entertaining and informative short videos that you can easily share on social media or on your campaigns and make your posts more interesting and engaging. It is done completely online in a matter of minutes and you can add your own music, themes, images, and templates.
Animoto is a video maker platform that turns your photos and video clips into professional videos in minutes. The tool provides access to a large volume of attractive templates, themes, and even a collection of stock music to add depth to video. Native video is the top-reaching post type on Facebook and gets three times the engagement of link posts and two times that of photo posts.
Turn your photos and video clips into video stories
Magisto makes it easy and fun to turn your digital videos and photos into movies that look and feel like living experiences. Whether you’re an individual sharing your life experience or a business sharing your professional narrative, simply capture the moments that move you. Magisto turns them into moving stories, great for sharing on social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and more.
Video editor music, cut app
InShot is an app available for Android and iOS that allows you to edit creative video in various size formats, adding music and video effects. It helps you create video with ease, edit video for YouTube, Instagram, IGTV, Facebook, Messenger, Musical.ly, Tik Tok, Twitter etc.
Content promotion platform
Quuu is a hand-curated and content-promotion platform. Marketers and influencers submit their content to Quuu for strict individual review and approval by its editorial team. Each article is reviewed by a real person before it is approved because the goal is to promote only the highest quality content. Once it’s approved, that content is sorted by topic or industry and available for curation. Once the article approved, Quuu adds it to it’s huge distribution network where you can then see the amount of shares and clicks for each article.
Other Social Media Tools
51. Fanpage Karma
Social media analytics and monitoring
Fanpage Karma provides valuable insights on posting strategies and performance of social media profiles like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube. With Fanpage Karma, you can not only analyze your profiles and those of the competition, but also manage all your customer conversations in one tool- even composing, planning and publishing posts. It’s also include tools to identify the winners of your Facebook promotions with just one click.
52. Comment Picker
Randomly pick a comment as a competition winner
Random Comment Picker is a simple free tool to easily generate a winner from social media giveaways and contests. By entering the URL of the post they retrieving all comments and filtering out duplicate names. Then you can pick a random winner from all the comments by pressing the start button. With this tool there is no need to fill in all the names themselves to choose a competition winner.
These social media management and marketing tools will help you take your social media results to the next level. Choosing the right social media tool for your business requires you to have a good understanding of what your business goals are. Not every tool provides the functionality you need. While a lot of the platforms here seem very cool, you will not need all of them.
Social media marketers have different needs and each tool has its pros and cons, so it’s up to you to figure out which one suits your needs best.
There are a lot of popular social media management and marketing tools in this list but I am sure that I didn’t cover them all. There are tons of social media tools out there for almost every unique need.
We will keep this post updated with new tools for social media management and marketing. If use any social media tool that not included in the list or you are the founder/owner of any social media tool, SaaS, app or any service that helps social media managers please share your social media tool in the comments and maybe we will be included in the list.